Anemia due to iron deficiency Iron-deficiency Anemia Anemia is a frequent coincidence and has many causes. Successful treatment depends on detecting the cause, which may be obvious at times, often hidden, and therefore needs a lot of careful investigation. Iron deficiency is a widespread disease in the world and occurs in all races and ages, especially in women and children. What is anemia due to iron deficiency? This type of anemia can be defined as bone marrow inability to generate enough erythrocytes due to iron deficiency which is necessary in hemoglobin synthesis. The incidence of this disease is different from country to country, and the incidence depends on the level of health in that country, it is low in developed countries with a high level of health, and where the quality of food and drink at a high level, and conversely, the infection is high in the late countries where Low health, not to mention the frequent spread of parasites and worms. The ratio also varies in one country between men and women and is higher in women because of menstrual requirements, pregnancy and lactation What are the causes of anemia due to iron deficiency? Iron deficiency is rarely the cause of anemia except for childhood, some cases requiring additional iron such as pregnancy, age of growth in children, and some cases where iron absorption in the body, such as lipid diarrhea and sprue (chronic inflammation of the membrane) Mucous of the gastrointestinal tract); The rest of the cases, which make up most cases of iron deficiency anemia, have other causes that disappear behind this anemia, which is the result of the original disease caused, and here are the symptoms that the patient complains for which the doctor reviews are symptoms of anemia, and not the symptoms of the original disease caused If the doctor suspects the presence of a bleeding focus and could not detect it by clinical examination, it is often in the digestive system, and the examination of hidden blood in the stool and sign of bleeding is often positive, and repeat this examination is necessary where the results are not always positive, because bleeding The digestive system may be intermittent and discontinuous. The most important bleeding foci in the digestive tract that cause iron deficiency anemia are: Hemorrhoids Ulcers of the stomach and duodenum Long aspirin therapy Esophageal varices Colon and stomach cancer Worms What are the signs and symptoms of iron deficiency anemia? In general there are two types of symptoms: Symptoms of the original causative disease Other symptoms that the patient complains of these are divided into two parts: General symptoms and signs seen in all types of anemia: They are: pallor, fatigue speed, general muscle weakness, headache, dizziness with unsteadiness, tinnitus, functional systolic murmurs, etc. Of course, it is not necessary to complain about all these symptoms, but in many cases the complaint is limited to one or more symptoms, depending on the severity of his anemia. Symptoms and signs of iron deficiency anemia: If anemia persists for a long time and changes appear in the mouth, tongue and nails, the mucous membrane of the tongue becomes in a good proportion of patients pale soft and shiny, and the lingual papillae (especially on the sides) atrophied, and the tongue is painless unless patches become infected. The mucous membrane of the mouth and cheeks may appear red, and cracks may appear on both sides of the mouth called commissure cheilosis. The nails look flat or concave like a spoon and are known as concavity of nails, and characterized by nails cracked and broken quickly. The spleen may swell in a few cases Laboratory tests The persistence of iron deficiency anemia for some reason, such as if the bleeding is not interrupted or the woman is not treated with menorrhagia or its prolongation, the iron stock in the body gradually decreases until drained, and here hemoglobin (hemoglobin) and hematocrit and the number of red blood cells. The reduction in the amount of hemoglobin is severe and may reach about 4 g / 100 ml, while the average normal rate is about 14 g / 100 ml, and the number of red blood cells does not decrease significantly Blood film Red blood cells appear small in size and lack pigment and many take different forms, and others take different sizes, some are small in size and others are large. A few young red blood cells may appear in the smear. The number of leukocytes, platelets and nets is usually within normal limits, but changes in bleeding occur. How is it treated? It relies primarily on knowing the cause of iron deficiency, treating it by stopping bleeding or improving the syndrome of malabsorption (i.e. malabsorption of iron in the body) and then starting to give iron compounds. Often the treatment is given by mouth, and the duration of treatment should last for at least three months after the amount of hemoglobin returns to normal limits in order to restore the body's iron stock If there is any contraindication to oral therapy such as intolerance to the drug or otherwise, then it may be given as a muscle injection. The response to treatment is generally excellent, and hemoglobin should be calibrated three weeks after treatment began to see how responsive it is. If the hemoglobin does not rise to the expected level, the reason is: The patient does not take treatment continuously and regularly An error in diagnosis Patient injury malabsorption syndrome If untreated, it is a chronic course, and the importance of injury is not life-threatening, but leads to loss of effectiveness and reduced resistance to infection (infection).
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